Dr Arun Muthuvel
IVF & Fertility Super Specialist Chennai


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Dr Arun Muthuvel 

Infertility Super Specialist Dr Arun Muthuvel got Male Infertility training under Dr Ranjith Ramasamy at Miami University, Florida, USA. 

He is regarded as an expert in TESA, Micro TESE, etc for Male Infertility conditions like Azoospermia. 

You will find information about Azoospermia, its causes, tests to be done, diagnosis, treatments etc. Feel free to comment if you have any doubts to be clarified.

    What is Azoospermia ?

    Azoospermia is a condition where no sperms are found during your routine semen analysis. When you get a report like this, We usually repeat one more semen analysis ideally.

    We confirm such diagnosis after repeating the test and also centrifuging the sample and concentrating it to a pellet and examining under high power microscope.

    What are the types of Azoospermia ?

    Azoospermia can be broadly divided into two types.

    1.Obstructive Azoospermia

    When sperms are produced in the testes but there is a block in the passage which prevents the sperms from coming out. Obstructive Azoospermia has the best prognosis.

    2. Non Obstructive Azoospermia

    When the testes does not produce sperms it’s called as Non Obstructive Azoospermia. Though we say that sperms are not produced, but still there will be areas in the testes where there is little Sperm production which can be utilised for producing a baby.

    What causes Azoospermia ?

    • Genetic problems (Klinefelter syndrome, Y chromosome microdeletion0
    • Bilateral absense of vsa deferens
    • Injury to testes
    • Radiotherapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Diabetes
    • Genital infections
    • Obstruction in vas deferens or epididymis
    • Varicocele
    • Undescended testes
    • Steroids, Testosterone usage
    • High prolactin levels
    • Pituitary tumors
    • Mumps in childhood
    • Smoking
    • Alcohol abuse

    What are the tests be to be done after you have been diagnosed with Azoospermia?

    1. Repeat Semen Testing again
    2. Test centrifuged semen sample also
    3. Check Semen pH, Fructose levels, Volume
    4. Rule out Retrograde ejaculation
    5. Perform Hormones tests to find out the functioning of testes and diagnosis of Azoospermia
    6. Do a testicular ultrasound if there is any suspicion of tumors or obstruction
    7. Do a routine blood test for sugars and other parameters.
    8. TESA – Testicular Sperm Aspiration or Sperm mapping as it’s called by some to check for Sperms inside the testicular tissues. We prefer to freeze the testicular sample if sperms are found.

    What are the treatments for Azoospermia ?

    Treatment for Azoospermia depends on the cause and type of Azoospermia.

    Treatments can be broadly classified as mentioned below.

    • TESA – Testicular Sperm Aspiration
    • TESE – Testicular Sperm Extraction
    • Micro TESE – Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction
    • PESA – Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
    • MESA – Microscopic epididymal Sperm Aspiration

    Success of finding sperms in Azoospermia

    Success depends on the cause of Azoospermia. If it’s obstructive Azoospermia the chance of finding sperms is very high and almost 99%. With Non Obstructive Azoospermia, the chance of finding falls and varies depending on the type of cellptesent inside the testes.

    All the best for your success…