Low testosterone in male – Treatment , causes, testing

Primary (testicular) Klinefelter syndrome

Anorchia (bilateral)

Cryptorchidism

Myotonic dystrophy

Enzymatic defects in testosterone synthesis

Leydig cell aplasia

Noonan syndrome

Chemotherapy or radiation therapy

Testicular infection (eg, mumps, echovirus, flavivirus)

High doses of antiandrogen drugs (eg, cimetidinespironolactoneketoconazoleflutamidecyproterone)

Secondary (hypothalamic-pituitary) Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Kallmann syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome

Dandy-Walker malformation

Isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency

Any acute systemic illness

Hypopituitarism (tumor, infarction, infiltrative disease, infection, trauma, irradiation)

Hyperprolactinemia

Iron overload (hemochromatosis)

Certain drugs (eg, estrogens, psychoactive drugs, metoclopramide, opioids, leuprolidegoserelin, triptorelin, newer androgen biosynthesis inhibitors for prostate cancer)

Cushing syndrome

Cirrhosis

Morbid obesity

Idiopathic

Mixed Aging

Alcoholism

Systemic disease (eg, uremia, liver failure, AIDS, sickle cell disease)

Drugs (ethanol, corticosteroids)