PGD & PGS – Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) / Screening , EMBRYO BIOPSY and IVF in Chennai India.
Dr Arun Muthuvel is one of the few who are specialists for Pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and screening in India. He takes care of all aspects of embryology related to IVF.
He has been trained in Embryo biopsy and advanced IVF techniques from Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland , USA.
What is PGD ?
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis ( PGD ) – Embryo biopsy essentially enable people with a hereditary condition in their family to have children void of the undesired traits. The genes and embryo chromosomes are checked through IVF. PGD may be highly recommended to you if you have: miscarried previously due to a genetic situation, had a child with a genetic condition, a family history of chromosomal issues as well as a family history of genetic issues.
What Genetic conditions are tested with the help of PGD ?
Almost any genetic condition can be tested with the help of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. This method has currently been approved to screen well over two hundred and fifty genetic conditions. If interested in knowing more about the approved conditions, read the regulatory bodies list of PGD conditions. Of interest to us at this particular moment is knowing what to do when your condition is not among those listed. It is quite simple. For starters, the clinic treating you needs to make an application to regulatory bodies for approval. They have laid out procedures that determine if approval will be granted or not.
How PGD works ?
For PGD, the first step is usually undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. This helps collect and fertilise your eggs. In the second step, the embryo is grown in the laboratory for two or three days until the cells are divided and the embryo consists of around eight cells. At stage three a qualified embryologist removes one or two of the cells from the embryo. Next, the cells are tested to determine if the embryo from which they have been extracted contains the problematic gene. In case the embryo is not affected, it is transferred to the womb for further development. The affected embryos are discarded. As for any other useful embryos, they can be frozen for use at a later date.
Chances of delivering a baby with the help of PGD.
Due to minimal data available on the same, it is hard to determine the success rates of PGD. You go for this option only when you want to avoid genetically related issues and not due to fertility problems. Some of the common setbacks in achieving proper PGD success are less eggs produced for fertilisation, all embryos being affected by the genetic disorder and embryos getting damaged during cell removal. All odds held constant, you still stand a chance of succeeding when it comes to delivering a baby with the help of PGD.
PGD and sex selection.
Gender selection using PGD is banned in India and not practised. Sex selection is quite controversial for it can be used to do what many would refer to as family balancing. However, if used correctly, it can be fruitful especially in determining what sex the embryo will transform into and weeding out the carrier gender. Mainly some genetic diseases only affect one gender. A good example is the Duchene Muscular Dystrophy that affects boys only. This means that the girls may still carry the gene but will not be affected. In such cases the embryos are tested and only the favourable sex is moved to the womb.
Blastocyst biopsy – Advantages:
- More DNA
- Less mosaicism
- Reduced impact of embryo biopsy
- Less embryos to process
- Single embryo transfer possible
- Frozen embryo transfer with better success